Confusion with 什么
In one of the elementary lessons I encountered the following sentence.
Now I know what this means and that 以外 can happily be dropped but I'm still a little confused about the 什么。
In this context the 什么 means everything rather than what. My literal english mind wanted to translate as
"apart from studying what does he not know" i.e. the complete opposite of the actual meaning of the sentence. (partially I think because I misinterpreted 都 as part of the 除了 sequence).
My question is: is there something that helps tip me off to the fact that 什么 is not being used as a question here?
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