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Eight Cuisines in China 中国八大菜系

Posted by bluehorizon June 7, 2007 in the Group General Discussion.

中国八大菜系

中国菜肴在烹饪中有许多流派。其中最有影响和代表性的也为社会所公认的有:鲁、 川、 粤、 闽、 苏、 浙、湘、 徽等菜系,即被人们常说的中国“八大菜系”。一个菜系的形成和它的悠久历史与独到的烹饪特色分不开的。同时也受到这个地区的自然地理、气候条件、资源特产、饮食习惯等影响。有人把“八大菜系”用拟人化的手法描绘为:苏、浙菜好比清秀素丽的江南美女;鲁、皖菜犹如古拙朴实的北方健汉;粤、闽菜宛如风流典雅的公子;川、湘菜就象内涵丰富充实、才艺满身的名士。

    中国“八大菜系”的烹调技艺各具风韵,其菜肴之特色也各有千秋。
  鲁菜历史悠久,“食不厌精,脍不厌细”,文化底蕴浓厚;川菜采巴蜀丰 富的物产,烹巴蜀之美味,“七滋八味”尽在其中;苏菜“金齑玉脍”,技法精妙,玲珑剔透;湘菜,香甜酸辣,诸味俱全,风味浓郁;徽菜古色古香,河鲜家禽,尽入其味;浙菜南料北烹,味贯南北,清鲜爽脆;闽菜清鲜和醇,色香味形,无一不备;粤菜清淡鲜活,博采众家,影响深远。
一、 鲁菜
    宋以后鲁菜就成为“北食”的代表。明、清两代,鲁菜已成宫廷御膳主体,对京、津东北各地的影响较大,现今鲁是由济南和胶东两地的地方菜演化而成的。其特点是清香、味纯、鲜咸脆嫩而著名,十分讲究清汤和奶汤的调制,清汤色清而鲜,奶汤色白而醇, 选料精细,刀法细腻,注重实惠,花色多样,善用葱姜。济南菜擅长爆、烧、炸、炒,其著名品种有“糖醋黄河鲤鱼”、“九转大肠”、“汤爆双脆”、“烧海螺”、“烧蛎蝗”、“烤大虾”、“清汤燕窝”等。胶东菜以烹制各种海鲜而驰名,口味以鲜为主,偏重清淡,其著名品种有“干蒸加吉鱼”、“油爆海螺”等。建国后,创新名菜的品种有“扒原壳鲍鱼”、“奶汤核桃肉”、“白汁瓤鱼”、“麻粉肘子”等。
   
二、川菜
    在秦末汉初就初具规模。唐宋时发展迅速,明清已富有名气,现今川菜馆遍布世界。正宗川菜以四川成都、重庆两地的菜肴为代表。重视选料,讲究规格,分色配菜主次分明,鲜艳协调。其特点是酸、甜、麻、辣香、油重、味浓,注重调味,离不开三椒(即辣椒、胡椒、花椒)和鲜姜,以辣、酸、麻脍炙人口,为其他地方菜所少有,形成川菜的独特风味,享有“一菜一味,百菜百味”的美誉。烹调方法擅长于烤、烧、干煸、蒸。川菜善于综合用味,收汁较浓,在咸、甜、麻、辣、酸五味基础上,加上各种调料,相互配合,形成各种复合味,如家常味、咸鲜味、鱼香味、荔枝味怪味等二十三种。代表菜肴的品种有“大煮干丝”、“宫保鸡丁” 、“鱼香肉丝”、“毛肚火锅”、“黄焖鳗”、“夫妻肺片”、“怪味鸡块”、“麻婆豆腐”等。
   
三、粤菜
    西汉时就有粤菜的记载,南宋时受御厨随往羊城的影响,明清发展迅速20世纪随对外通商,吸取西餐的某些特长,粤菜也推向世界,仅美国纽约就有粤菜馆数千家。粤菜是以广州、潮州、东江三地的菜为代表而形成的。菜的原料较广,花色繁多,形态新颖,善于变化,讲究鲜、嫩、爽、滑,一般夏秋力求清淡,冬春偏重浓醇。调味有所谓五滋(香、松、臭、肥、浓)、六味(酸、甜、苦、咸、辣、鲜)之别。其烹调擅长煎、炸、烩、炖、煸等,菜肴色彩浓重,滑而不腻。尤以烹制蛇、狸、猫、狗、猴、鼠等野生动物而负盛名,著名的菜肴品种有“三蛇龙虎凤大会”、“五蛇羹”、“盐火局鸡”、“蚝油牛肉”、“烤乳猪”、“干煎大虾碌”和“冬瓜盅”等。
    
四、闽菜
    起源于福建省闽候县。它以福州、泉州、厦门等地的菜肴为代表发展起来的。其特点是色调美观,滋味清鲜而著称。烹调方法擅长于炒、溜、煎、煨,尤以“糟”最具特色。由于福建地处东南沿海,盛产多种海鲜,如海鳗、蛏子、鱿鱼、黄鱼、海参等,因此,多以海鲜为原料烹制各式菜肴,别具风味。著名菜肴品种有“佛跳墙”、“醉糟鸡”、“酸辣烂鱿鱼”、“烧片糟鸡”、“太极明虾”、“清蒸加力鱼”、“荔枝肉”等。
    
五、苏菜
    起始于南北朝时期,唐宋以后,与浙菜竞修秀,成为“南食”两大台柱之一。江苏菜是由苏州、扬州、南京、镇江四大菜为代表而构成的。其特点是浓中带淡,鲜香酥烂,原汁原汤浓而不腻,口味平和,咸中带甜。其烹调技艺擅长于炖、焖、烧、煨、炒而著称。烹调时用料严谨,注重配色,讲究造型,四季有别。苏州菜口味偏甜,配色和谐;扬州菜清淡适口,主料突出,刀工精细,醇厚入味;南京、镇江菜口味和醇,玲珑细巧,尤以鸭制的菜肴负有盛名。著名的菜肴品种有“清汤火方”、“鸭包鱼翅”、“松鼠桂鱼”、“西瓜鸡”、“盐水鸭”、“天目湖砂锅鱼头”、“金蹬仙裙”等。江苏点心富有特色,如秦淮小吃、苏州糕团、汤包,都很有名。
    
六、浙菜
    以杭州、宁波、绍兴、温州等地的菜肴为代表发展而成的。其特点是清、香、脆、嫩、爽、鲜,菜式小巧玲珑、清俊秀丽。浙江盛产鱼虾,又是著名的风景旅游胜地,湖山清秀,山光水色,淡雅宜人,故其菜如景,不少名菜,来自民间,制作精细,变化较多。烹调技法擅长于炒、炸、烩、溜、蒸、烧,重原汁原味。久负盛名的菜肴有“西湖醋鱼”、“生爆蟮片”、“东坡肉”、“龙井虾仁”、“干炸响铃”、“叫化童鸡”、“清汤鱼圆”、“干菜焖肉”、“大汤黄鱼”、“爆墨鱼卷”、“锦绣鱼丝”等。浙江点心中的团子、糕、羹、面点品种多,口味佳。
    
七、湘菜
    以湘江流域、洞庭湖区和湘西山区的菜肴为代表发展而成的。其特点是用料广泛,油重色浓,多以辣椒、熏腊为原料,刀法奇异形态逼真,巧夺天工,口味注重香鲜、酸辣、软嫩。烹调方法擅长腊、熏、煨、蒸、炖、炸、炒。湖南菜最大特色一是辣,二是腊。其著名菜肴品种有“腊味合蒸”、“东安子鸡”、“麻辣子鸡”、“红煨鱼翅”、“汤泡肚”、“冰糖湘莲”、“金钱鱼”、“油爆肚尖”、“生熏大黄鱼”等。
    
八、徽菜
    以沿江、沿淮、徽洲三地区的地方菜为代表构成的。其特点是选料朴实,讲究火功,重油重色 ,味道醇厚,保持原汁原味。徽菜以烹制山野海味而闻名,早在南宋时,“沙地马蹄鳖,雪中牛尾狐”,就是那时的著名菜肴了。其烹调方法擅长于烧、焖、炖。著名的菜肴品种有“符离集烧鸡”、“火腿炖甲鱼”、“腌鲜桂鱼”、“火腿炖鞭笋”、“雪冬烧山鸡”、“红烧果子狸”、“奶汁肥王鱼”、“毛峰熏鲥鱼”、“无为熏鸭” 、“方腊鱼”、“蝴蝶面”等。

Eight Cuisines in China

Chinese cuisine in its development has formed different genres. The recognized saying is Chinese cuisine involves eight branches. Based on different regions, they are cuisines of Shandong, Sichuan, Guangdong, Fujian, Jinagsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, and Anhui. Their features are related to the geography, climate, local product and eating habit.

Shandong Cuisine

Consisting of Jinan cuisine and Jiaodong cuisine, Shandong cuisine, clear, pure and not greasy, is characterized by its emphasis on aroma, freshness, crispness and tenderness. Shallot and garlic are usually used as seasonings so Shangdong dishes tastes pungent usually. Soups are given much emphasis in Shangdong dishes. Thin soup features clear and fresh while creamy soup looks thick and tastes strong. Jinan cuisine is adept at deep-frying, grilling, frying and stir-frying while Jiaodong division is famous for cooking seafood with fresh and light taste.

Shandong is the birthplace of many famous ancient scholars such as Confucious and Mencius. And much of Shandong cuisine's history is as old as Confucious himself, making it the oldest existing major cuisine in China. But don't expect to gain more wisdom from a fortune cookie at a Shandong restaurant in the West since fortune cookies aren't even indigenous to China.

Shandong is a large peninsula surrounded by the sea to the East and the Yellow River meandering through the center. As a result, seafood is a major component of Shandong cuisine. Shandong's most famous dish is the Sweat and Sour Carp. A truly authentic Sweet and Sour Carp must come from the Yellow River. But with the current amount of pollution in the Yellow River, you would be better off if the carp was from elsewhere. Shandong dishes are mainly quick-fried, roasted, stir-fried or deep-fried. The dishes are mainly clear, fresh and fatty, perfect with Shandong's own famous beer, Qingdao Beer.

Sichuan Cuisine

Sichuan Cuisine, known often in the West as Szechuan Cuisine, is one of the most famous Chinese cuisines in the world. Characterized by its spicy and pungent flavor, Sichuan cuisine, prolific of tastes, emphasizes on the use of chili. Pepper and prickly ash also never fail to accompany, producing typical exciting tastes. Besides, garlic, ginger and fermented soybean are also used in the cooking process. Wild vegetables and animals are usually chosen as ingredients, while frying, frying without oil, pickling and braising are applied as basic cooking techniques. It cannot be said that one who does not experience Sichuan food ever reaches China.

If you eat Sichuan cuisine and find it too bland, then you are probably not eating authentic Sichuan cuisine. Chili peppers and prickly ash are used in many dishes, giving it a distinctively spicy taste, called ma in Chinese. It often leaves a slight numb sensation in the mouth. However, most peppers were brought to China from the Americas in the 18th century so you can thank global trade for much of Sichuan cuisine's excellence. Sichuan hot pots are perhaps the most famous hotpots in the world, most notably the Yuan Yang (mandarin duck) Hotpot half spicy and half clear.

Guangdong Cuisine

Cantonese food originates from Guangdong, the southernmost province in China. The majority of overseas Chinese people are from Guangdong (Canton) so Cantonese is perhaps the most widely available Chinese regional cuisine outside of China.

Cantonese are known to have an adventurous palate, able to eat many different kinds of meats and vegetables. In fact, people in Northern China often say that Cantonese people will eat anything that flies except airplanes, anything that moves on the ground except trains, and anything that moves in the water except boats. This statement is far from the truth, but Cantonese food is easily one of the most diverse and richest cuisines in China. Many vegetables originate from other parts of the world. It doesn't use much spice, bringing out the natural flavor of the vegetables and meats.

Tasting clear, light, crisp and fresh, Guangdong cuisine, familiar to Westerners, usually chooses raptors and beasts to produce originative dishes. Its basic cooking techniques include roasting, stir-frying, sauteing, deep-frying, braising, stewing and steaming. Among them steaming and stir-frying are more commonly applied to preserve the natural flavor. Guangdong chefs also pay much attention to the artistic presentation of dishes.

Fujian Cuisine

Consisting of Fuzhou Cuisine, Quanzhou Cuisine and Xiamen Cuisine, Fujian Cuisine is distinguished for its choice seafood, beautiful color and magic taste of sweet, sour, salty and savory. The most distinct features are their "pickled taste".

Jiangsu Cuisine

Jiangsu Cuisine, also called Huaiyang Cuisine, is popular in the lower reach of the Yangtze River. Aquatics as the main ingredients, it stresses the freshness of materials. Its carving techniques are delicate, of which the melon carving technique is especially well known. Cooking techniques consist of stewing, braising, roasting, simmering, etc. The flavor of Huaiyang Cuisine is light, fresh and sweet and with delicate elegance. Jiangsu cuisine is well known for its careful selection of ingredients, its meticulous preparation methodology, and its not-too-spicy, not-too-bland taste. Since the seasons vary in climate considerably in Jiangsu, the cuisine also varies throughout the year. If the flavor is strong, it isn't too heavy; if light, not too bland.

Zhejiang Cuisine

Comprising local cuisines of Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shaoxing, Zhejiang Cuisine, not greasy, wins its reputation for freshness, tenderness, softness, smoothness of its dishes with mellow fragrance. Hangzhou Cuisine is the most famous one among the three.

Hunan cuisine

Hunan cuisine consists of local Cuisines of Xiangjiang Region, Dongting Lake and Xiangxi coteau. It characterizes itself by thick and pungent flavor. Chili, pepper and shallot are usually necessaries in this division.

Anhui Cuisine

Anhui Cuisine chefs focus much more attention on the temperature in cooking and are good at braising and stewing. Often hams will be added to improve taste and sugar candy added to gain

 

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